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This is the name of the priest's garments that God ordained for Aaron as High Priest. This is a supplement to the teaching of the priest's garments as we are not able to go through all of it in one teaching.
We are going to try to go a little deeper with more detail than we normally do, if we are teaching a class. In Exodus 28 and 39, we find the description of the priest's garments. We will be dealing with chapter 28, but will refer to chapter 39 at times. We will be looking at chapter 28, verses 1 through 39. The rest of chapter 28 has to do with the garments for Aaron's sons which are in line for the priest office.
We want to deal with the garments Aaron wore, which pointed to the Lord Jesus Christ, "For Glory and for Beauty." They set forth the Lord Jesus Christ in all His glory and beauty as nothing else could do. They also set apart the High Priest of Israel, of which Aaron was the first.
Most all of Israel knew Aaron by sight. But let us suppose for a moment they didn't know him personally, and would not recognize him if they met him on the street. These garments would set him forth as the High Priest. Now if he pulled these garments off and put on street clothes and walked down the street, he might not have the respect that he would if he had been wearing the High Priest garments. We can illustrate this by the military of today. A commissioned officer, if he doesn't have his bars, or the insignia of his rank, then he could walk down the street and would not be recognized as an officer. But put on his insignia, then the private would have to salute him as he went by.
So the garments made Aaron recognizable for the people, easy to recognize at a distance, so they could prepare themselves for the meeting of the High Priest.
Each part of these garments point to the Lord Jesus Christ. So let us begin reading.
1 And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons.
2 And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty.
Now, in verse one we see God talking with Moses. Aaron was Moses' brother, and Aaron was to be consecrated in the priest's office. Following him was Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. You will recall in Leviticus 10, we find Nadab and Abihu were slain by the Lord. They were made a breach, showing I believe, the importance God placed on the priest's office.
Verse one mentions "...that he may minister." It says that again in verses three and four. Aaron was recognized as High Priest, but it took all of them to carry on the priest's office. In other words, Aaron could not have done it all by himself. Aaron could not typify the Lord Jesus Christ all by himself. No man could, so it took all of them. Just as in the sacrifices. It took several sacrifices to set forth the work Christ did, when He was here on earth, and while on the cross.
3 And thou shalt speak unto all that are wisehearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.
If we were to go back into the book of Exodus, and look at the construction of the tabernacle, the priest's garments were a part of that contstruction. We find Bezaleel, (in 31:2) that God put in his heart the wisdom to carry out the work needed to be done in working on the tabernacle, and all connected with it. This was too much of a job for one man. There was another man that was helping, but still too much of a job for two men. They had to have more help. So, in my mind I'm thinking that Bezaleel was the head foreman, and the other man, Aholiab (31:6) was foreman under Bezaleel. Both had the wisdom and knowledge to make that which God instituted for the tabernacle. Chapter 31 verse 6 indicates there were others that were given this wisdom as well, but Bezaleel was overseer of it all.
They were to make Aaron's garments to "consecrate" him, or to set him apart to minister unto the Lord. (Exodus 29) He was not consecrated to minister unto man, but unto the Lord on behalf of man.
4 And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron they brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.
The breastplate was listed first. It is the most important of all the priest's garments. Then we have the ephod the second thing listed. The ephod was a type of vest, but didn't open in the front. It was opened on each side. It was fastened together at the shoulders by sets to hold the onyx stones.
Next there was the robe, which was blue and come down to the ankles. Then we have the broidered coat. This is a coat that goes inside of and under all the other garments. All that was seen of the broidered coat was the collar and the sleeves.
Then we find the mitre, the head piece. Last is listed the girdle. It is the second thing that is given description to make. It was nothing more than a belt. It brought the ephod and robe in snug with the body around the waist.
5 And they shall take gold, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen.
With the colors, and the materials, we can determine much of the spiritual aspect of the priest's garments. The gold represents deity, and this is true all through the teaching of the tabernacle, because the tabernacle points to the Lord Jesus Christ also. In fact the whole Bible is about Him, and the gold represents deity all the way through.
The blue is a heavenly color. Jesus Christ had His origin in heaven. Purple represents royal majesty, and found in Kings courts. Christ came as a King. He was rejected as King. He will come again as King. He will not be rejected the second time, but will reject those who rejected Him.
And the scarlet represents the glorious suffering, and certainly Christ suffered for you and me. He paid for His Kingship as no other king has ever paid. He bought and has the title deed to this earth. He created it, then He turned it over to man. Man sold it out to Satan. But at the cross, Christ bought it back, He redeemed it. He suffered and died for you and me.
The fine linen represents the best of earth. The linen was made out of flax. The flax was grown out of the ground. Christ was born of a virgin. He was born a man.
So, looking at the colors and the type meaning of them, Christ was just as much God as He was man, and just as much man as He was God. We have a man in the heavens to make intercession for you and me. (1 Tim. 2:5), No other mediator other than the man, Christ Jesus.
6 And they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work.
All of the colors were represented in this one garment. The blue, purple, and scarlet were embroidered into the fine linen. What kind of design that was used I don't really know. Possibly Cherubims, or possibly flowers. Bazaleel may have had the instructions of what to put in the way of embroidered work.
The gold was handled differently. Ex 39:3 tells us, "and they did beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it into wires, to work it in the blue, and in the purple, and in the scarlet, and in the fine linen, with cunning work."
They took the gold and beat it into thin sheets, and then cut it into little strips, and made wires of it. This was woven into the material on top and through the embroidered work. It made it glisten and shine. The light would hit it just right and you could see it for blocks away. It also gave it stability and was more rigid than it would have been otherwise. But mostly, the beauty that was involved was in the gold.
7 It shall have the two shoulder pieces thereof joined at the two edges thereof; and so it shall be joined together.
The ephod was two pieces, the back and the front, joined together on the shoulders with the ouches of gold, or the sets of gold, that the onyx stones were placed in as we will find in verse 12. These sets held the ephod together at the shoulders.
8 And the curious girdle of the ephod, which is upon it, shall be of the same, according to the work thereof; even of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.
The curious girdle was what we would call a belt, and was of the same material and design as the ephod, and was fastened onto the back piece of the ephod. Whenever the High Priest put on the ephod, he brought around him the curious girdle and tied a knot in the front. This held it all snug to him, so it would not be flopping so badly.
We find the girdle used a great many ways in the Bible. In John 13:4, Jesus girded Himself with a towel when He washed the feet of the disciples. This was a girdle of service. Again, we find in Revelation 1:13, that Jesus is gird about the paps with a golden girdle. Here He is clothed with the garments of judgment. To gird up the loins was a common expression for putting one's self into readiness for service that might be required. So it is that our High Priest, the Lord Jesus Christ, is ready to make intercession for you and me. He is ready to do the service that He said He would do.
9 And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and grave on them the names of the children of Israel:
10 Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names of the rest on the other stone, according to their birth.
11 With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engraving of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel: thou shalt make them to be set in ouches of gold.
The onyx is first mentioned to be found in the garden of Eden. It was, I believe, a very valuable stone. In checking with jewelers and looking at their catalogues, I have found for the most part black stones and not very valuable. So I wonder, is it really the onyx stone that we know today, or has the real onyx stone gotten lost somewhere in the shuffle.
On these two stones were engraved six names on each stone. The names were of the tribes of the children of Israel. They started by birth, Reuben was first and Benjamin was last, and all the rest of them in between, according to their birth. These were engraved so they could not be erased.
12 And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod for stones of memorial unto the children of Israel: and Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord upon his two shoulders for a memorial.
These two stones are those that went into the sets on the shoulders of the ephod (verse 7) to hold them together. It says that Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord upon his two shoulders for a memorial. The shoulders denote the point of strength. Christ carries us in all His strength as well as on His heart. (verse 29).
13 And thou shalt make ouches of gold;
This is the ouches, or sets, that the onyx stones were set in that we mentioned in verse seven. The names of the children of Israel were held in gold, as we today are held by deity.
14 And two chains of pure gold at the ends; of wreathen work shalt thou make them, and fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches.
These chains were fastened onto the sets that the onyx stones went in, on the shoulders of the High Priest. We will come back to these again in verse 24.
15 And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.
Now we begin the most important part of the priest's garments. The breastplate of judgement, of which the other garments are just the background. It is the breastplate of judgement for two reasons. One we will mention now, and the other in verse thirty.
First, as Aaron went before God with the names of the tribes of Israel on his shoulder and breastplate (verse 21) over his heart he went in before God with blood of the sacrifice and he bore the judgment of the people, just as the Lord Jesus Christ today goes in before God almighty with the names of all who are born of the Spirit of God with Christ's own blood. He bore our judgment on the cross and He bears our judgment today, as Aaron did for the children of Israel.
16 Foursquare it shall be being doubled; a span shall be the length thereof, and a span shall be the breadth thereof.
The breastplate was made out of a piece of linen a span wide and two spans long, and it was doubled to make it a span square. A span is considered to be from the end of the thumb to the end of the little finger when the hand is spread out, which is something like nine inches, it was nine inches wide and nine inches long when doubled, When doubled there was a pocket formed. This was used to put the Urim and Thummim in, which we will get to in verse thirty.
17 And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle: his shall be the first row.
18 And the second row shall be an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond
19 And the third row a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst.
20 And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper: They shall be set in gold in their in closings.
There is something we need to look at that you might say is negative. Over half of the stones are nor recognizable today by the name the Bible gives them. You find different translations, which I sometimes use as a commentary, will give different names for them. Sometimes you will find a commentary that will be bold enough to give you the description of it and the name that belongs to it. I find no description of any of the stones in the word of God. A name, but a name that cannot be matched today.
21 And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names, like the engravings of a signet; every one with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes.
On these stones were the names of the children of Israel. The Bible does not give a reference anywhere as to what name goes on what stone. In making the priest's garments I use in my demonstrations, we set the names of the stones according to the order set forth around the camp as seen in Numbers chapter two. Right or wrong, I feel I am just as right as the next fellow that places them another way. There is no way of knowing on what stone what name was engraved.
But this did something that I think was important. You could not find someone who is from the tribe of Judah talking to someone from the tribe of Dan and saying, "Well, I'm more important than you. I was set in a more prominent place on the breastplate. I was set on a stone that was more valuable than you." God is no respecter of persons, certainly, one of these days we will stand before God and we will be judged according to our works, and there will be some who will have to hang their head in shame, because they haven't done any works. They have been negligent to do anything and they will receive no rewards. But today we stand before God on common ground. We are all born of the Spirit of God, and all saved by grace, the unmerited favor of God. And one of us cannot boast and say, "I'm more important in the eyes of God than you are." I can't say because I am a preacher and minister of God, that I'm more important than someone sitting out in the congregation. Whatever we do that is our duty to do, and that which God has called us to do, we are still unprofitable servants. But we all stand before God equal.
Now, let's look a little at the positive. We find on the breastplate, placed over the heart, the names of the children of Israel, and each had his own precious stone. They were set in golden ouches, held by deity, and fastened onto the ephod in such a way that it could not be taken off. They were placed over the heart and carried over the heart before God. The High Priest carried the names of the children of Israel on his shoulder, and over his heart. The Lord Jesus Christ does the same for us today.
22 And thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains at the ends of
wreathen work of pure gold
This looks back to the chains we had in verse fourteen, verses twenty-four and twenty five will give us more on this.
23 And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and
shalt put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate.
24 And thou shalt put the two wreath en chains of gold in the two rings which are on the ends of the breastplate.
25 And the other two ends of the two wreath en chains thou shalt fasten in the two ouches, and put them on the shoulder pieces of the ephod before it.
The chains that we saw in verse fourteen, that one end fastened onto the sets on the shoulder of the ephod, now have the other end fastened into the gold rings at the top comer of the breastplate. The gold chains and the gold rings fasten the breastplate and ephod together, as we are joined and held together with Jesus Christ by his deity. "I in them and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one. . .John 17:23.
26 And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and thou shalt put them upon the two ends of the Breastplate in the border thereof, which is in the side of the ephod inward
27 And two other rings of gold thou shalt make, and shalt put them on the two sides of the ephod underneath, toward the forepart thereof, over against the other coupling thereof, above the curious girdle of the ephod
There were two rings to be put on the lower comer of the breastplate, and then two rings placed just behind them on the ephod, just above the curious girdle.
28 And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be above the curious girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod
We have four articles that are solid blue. This is the heavenly color. Here we have the blue lace holding the breastplate to the ephod, in verse 31 we have the robe of blue. The pomegranates in verse 33, and the lace in verse 37. These all point to the heavenly priesthood of our Lord Jesus Christ, but in a little different aspect.
Here in verse 28, we have the lace, or ribbon, holding the breastplate to the ephod, that it be not loosed from the ephod. This is a picture of us as children of God, being secure through the man Christ Jesus, as in 1 Timothy 2:5. He was the God-man, and the blue sets forth the heavenly origin of the Lord Jesus Christ, He is our High Priest.
29 And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before the Lord continually.
Aaron bore the judgment of the children of Israel by presenting the blood of the sacrifice. Christ bore the judgment of His people by presenting His own blood.
In verse 12, as in this verse, we find the two onyx stones with the breastplate worn in before the Lord as a memorial. Now does God need to be reminded of His people continually? I do not think so. I do believe He likes to be reminded of the grace He has extended to His creatures. And through eternity, we will exhibit the wonders of the grace of God. Satan will look up and say, "I thought I had him", and God will put us on exhibit and say, "By my grace he is here." So God, I believe, appreciates an awareness, to see the grace of God exhibited amongst His enemies, and amongst everyone, that His grace might be made known throughout.
30 And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the Lord: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the Lord continually.
Here, I believe, is the main reason for the breastplate to be called the breastplate of judgment. When the breastplate was doubled, as we find in verse 16, there was a pocket formed where the Urim and Thummim were placed. Urim means "Lights", and Thummim means "Perfections".
According to 1 Samuel 28:6 they were used to determine the mind of God. In this instance Saul tried to get a word from the Lord by the Urim and Thummim, but the Lord would not answer because Saul had sinned.
We do not know what the Urim and Thummim looked like or how they were used to get an answer from God. Some say they were little idols. This does not seem quite right to me. Some say they were used to cast lots with. As far as the word of God is concerned this is all speculation.
The last time they are mentioned in the Bible is in Nehemiah 7:65 where it says, "and the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and Thummim." The same words are quoted in Ezra 2:63, the children of Israel were just coming back from Babylonian captivity. There is no record where the Urim and Thummim were ever found. I believe that God was doing away with the Urim and Thummim for one reason, to make way for the real Lights and Perfections. Jesus Christ is our Light, John 8:12, and He is our Perfections, Hebrews 5:9, and we go to Him for our advice today. We look to Jesus Christ like the old testament people did to the Urim and Thummim.
31 And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue.
We find that the robe was a gannent of dignity. Kings were clothed in robes. 1 Samuel 18:4, 2 Chronicles 18:9. In Luke 20:26, Jesus tells us the scribes desired to walk in long robes. In other words that people might see them and think how dignified they were.
We will be given white robes one of these days, according to Revelation 6:11. This is the righteousness of the saints. The robe is the second item of solid blue that we have before us. It portrays the heavenly character of our High Priest.
32 And there shall be an hole in the top of it, in the midst thereof; it shall have a binding of woven work round about the hole of it, as it were the hole of an habergeon, that it be not rent.
This reminds us primarily of the garment Christ wore, that they gambled for at the cross. It had no seams and had a hole for the head to go through, and gives instructions to put a binding of woven work around the hole. And of course, it had two holes for the arms to go through. It had no sleeves.
33 And beneath upon the hem of it thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof; and bells between them round about:
34 A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem of the robe round about
The pomegranate is a fruit grown in Israel and several countries in that part of the world, and they say in some parts over here. I don't know much about this fruit, but I've read a great deal about it, and decided to go to the grocery store and buy one, cut into it and see what it looked like. I bought it, brought it home, cut into it and it was molded. Evidently it either takes a long time to get here or had been in storage for a long time, or it doesn't keep real well. But it is a fruit that has seed floating in a thick jelly like liquid. Most commentaries agree that this is a type of the seed of Abraham, and as the seeds float in this red congealed liquid, it is the seed of Abraham washed in the blood of the covenant.
If it is a type of that, we find in Galatians 3: 7 that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham. So we also are washed in the blood of Jesus Christ, and fit under that covenant also.
As far as the spiritual significance, this is what we have until we get to the colors. The third item that is solid blue is the blue pomegranates. This typifies Christ with a heavenly origin. He is the Lord from heaven. He is in heaven today. The purple wraps Him in Kingly apparel. The purple is found in king's courts. Christ came as a King. He was rejected as King by His people, but He will come back as King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, and will rule and reign for one thousand years. We find then that there was the scarlet. This sets Him forth as the one who suffered for us. Now let us look at the golden bells.
35 And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the Lord, and when he cometh out, that he die not
The only sound that Aaron made when he went into the holy place was the tinkling of the golden bells. Bells are mentioned in only three places in the word of God. We find it here and in Chapter 39, with both referring to the priest's garments. Then we find in Zechariah 14:20, with bells on the horses with the engraving of "HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD". This has to do with the time when Christ will reign on this earth.
But what do the bells on the priest's garments mean? I believe it gives the answer in the text. “...and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the Lord, and when he cometh out, that he die not.”
Let me mention something here that we have not mentioned before. At no time did Aaron wear these garments into the Holy of Holies. Remember that he went into the Holy of Holies only one day out of the year, three times in that day, some say even more, but first to burn the incense, Leviticus 16:12-13, then to offer the blood of the bullock for himself, verse 14, and then the offering for the people, verse 15. This is the day of atonement. He did not wear the garments of glory and beauty at this time. He wore other garments. As far as I can tell this is the only time he was without the garments of glory and for beauty.
Many years ago a young fellow in a seminary studying the word of God told me that these bells were placed on the bottom of the priest's garments for the purpose of the people listening to the tinkling of the bells, and as long as they could hear these bells, they would know the High Priest was not dead. I also found this in one of the commentaries in my library. I think this may have come out of Leviticus 10, where Nadab and Abihu, Aaron's sons, offered strange fire before the Lord, and the Lord killed them, and they had a little problem getting them out. But the scripture points to something else. Notice verse 35 again, “...that they die not.” It does not say "in case he dies" but "that he die not." We find Aaron was going into the holy place, maybe with the blood of a bullock, or maybe some other animal, or maybe it was to do his daily administration. Outside the people were noisy. Maybe there was much commotion at the altar as they killed other sacrifices. But as the High Priest went into the holy place, all God could hear was the tinkling of the golden bells. It was the same on the way out.
It seems that the bells were a protection for the High Priest. As he went into the Holy Place, God could only hear the tinkling of these bells and this was a soothing sound in the ears of God and the Priest was safe.
The bells were made of gold which typifies deity. We do not look to bells today, but to the Lord Jesus Christ for our protection. He is the one who can give us protection.
36 And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD.
This was a plate of pure gold. It doesn't say how thick, or how big. It was just a gold plate, engraved upon it was the word "HOLINESS TO THE LORD". We will come back to this in a little bit.
37 And thou shalt put it on a blue lace, that it may be upon the mitre; upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be.
Now let's look at the mitre. This is nothing more than a headpiece. I have been told it was a bonnet, just like a woman would wear. But a bonnet as I remember my mother wearing was not made right to put a plate of any kind on the front of it. In verse 40 we find the sons of Aaron were to have bonnets, but not Aaron. About all that is said about making the mitre is in verse 39, where it says it was made of fine linen.
Now we have the forth and last solid blue item before us. The lace here connects deity with earthly. The mitre made of linen, was woven of flax which is grown from the earth. The gold plate stands for deity. Again we say, Jesus Christ, our High Priest, is just as much God as He is man, and just as much man as He is God.
38 And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead, that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts, and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the Lord
We find the gold plate on the mitre, with "HOLINESS TO THE LORD" engraved on it, called a crown in Exodus 29:6, 39:30, and Leviticus 8:9 and in other places. A crown denotes authority. The "HOLINESS TO THE LORD" sets Aaron apart from the other priests, and looks forward to our High Priest Jesus Christ. Hebrews 7:26 says “For such an High Priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens.”
Aaron was to bear the iniquity of the holy things. He did this by the authority of God, as symbolized by the crown.
When Christ was risen from the dead, and was about to ascend into heaven, in Matthew 28:18 He said, "All power (or authority) is given unto me..." Jesus Christ today bears the iniquity of our worship. Someone will argue and say, "I don't sin in my worship." But how often have you been in the congregation, singing praises to God with all of your heart, and your mind a thousand miles away? Christ bore the penalty, or the iniquity of our worship. We need someone like that. He went to the cross and shed His blood. First of all to bring us into the family of God through salvation, and next that by His blood, He might present us before God without spot or wrinkle. So Christ is our perfect High Priest.
39 And thou shalt embroider the coat of fine linen, and thou shalt make the mitre of fine linen, and thou shalt make the girdle of needlework.
The mitre we have covered, and girdle we have covered, so now the coat. This was worn under everything, under the robe, under the ephod. All that was shown of it was the sleeves. You may ask, "What was the purpose for the coat?" To cover the nakedness of Aaron. God is very zealous that man should not show his nakedness. Today man doesn't seem to care. They do that which is right in their own eyes, but God is very zealous of this. In fact, when He gave the pattern for the alter, He said, "do not build steps up to it, that the people might not see the nakedness of the High Priest", Exodus 20:26. God is not satisfied with us showing our flesh.
The Hebrew word translated embroider means "to weave in checkered or plated work". This is the same as we find in Chapter 39 verse 27.
Here we have again, linen with blue between it and the gold. The blue robe almost hiding the linen coat. The heavenly overshadowing the humanity with the gold, or deity, interwoven in the ephod. Even though Jesus Christ is God, we still have a man in the heavens making intercession for us - 1 Timothy 2:5.
This concludes the study of the priest garments and I hope you have been enriched, and have profited by this study. If you have, we have accomplished what we started out to do.